Caring for currants properly
Black and red currants are one of the most common and popular shrubs on our lands, thanks to their unpretentious nature and fairly rich fertility, even the beginner gardener is able to grow it.
And although, of course, the currant does not require complex care and constant attention, still, in order to get a harvest of juicy, large and really tasty berries, you should work a little. In general, currant bushes planted in suitable soil, fertile and fertilized, are able to live and bear fruit from year to year for 15-20 years.
However, after the expiration of the term, the bush begins to ache, it makes me less and less happy with the harvest, the soil under it is completely depleted to the extent that no fertilizer and rejuvenation will help. That is why it is important to monitor the condition of the bush, and, if necessary, in time to change its location.
Currant refers to the regulars of the lands of our country, travelers,who visited our region in the XV-XVI centuries constantly mentioned and noted the heavenly pleasure from the juicy and prolific berry crops, among which, currant was noted.
At about the same time, there was an interest in its medicinal properties, over time, it became widespread in Western Europe, and especially in England. There are three main types of currant: red, white and black, each of them has its own taste characteristics, and requirements for breeding.
Useful properties of currants
Not for nothing, red and black currants are popular among gardeners and gardeners, because the berries of these shrubs have a wide range of useful and important substances for the human body.
Firstly, it boasts a high content of vitamin C, and, in the berries, it is perfectly preserved for a long time if stored in fresh frozen form or ground with large amounts of sugar.
In addition, currant berries are full of vitamins B, K, and P, as well as pectins and substances that contribute to the normalization of the work of the kidneys and liver, the clotting of blood vessels.
By the way, it is the red varieties of currants that are very useful for the elderly. The leaves and buds of black currant can be added to tea, which gives it not only a pleasant aroma, but also an excellent diaphoretic remedy.
In order for the berries of such a plant to really bear fruit and bring only joy to their owners, you need to know how to properly care for black currants, if you are going to grow such varieties.
The process of growing red currants also has its own specific recommendations and rules, following which, you can get a tasty, juicy and large crop of berries in the second season after planting!
Planting and care for the black currant
Basically, black currant is propagated in two ways: by cutting and by cuttings. The first method is used mainly in cases where the parent plant is far away.
To begin with, it is necessary to prepare cuttings from 2-3-year-old shoots, which are cut from an adult plant. Usually their length is 20-25 cm, on which there are 5-6 buds. We bury the cutting at an angle of 60 ° into the soil so that only 2 buds remain on the surface.
Do not forget to pre-fertilize the land, using organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as choose a location so that the bush grows at a small elevation. Currant loves "fresh air", so a small, albeit even artificial, it needs a hill, needs constant sun and protection from the winds.
Reproduction by layers is also made in the early autumn: one side branch of the bush should be laid in a previously prepared trench, the depth should be sufficient so that the tin does not come off the ground.
2-3 buds should remain on the surface, and the longer the buried part is, the more powerful the shrub will be. It is possible to separate a young plant from a mother plant only next year, so that it will have time to get stronger and take root. Care for currants in the spring is somewhat different from autumn and summer.
In the spring, it is necessary to carefully inspect the plant for the presence of tick-kidneys (they do not open, eventually swell and become like a popcorn).
If there are 2-3 of them on a branch, they are simply deleted, if more, then it is necessary to cut off the branch completely and, as soon as possible, burn it.In late autumn or early spring, it is necessary to get rid of old, dry and diseased branches.
After this, the main care consists in the periodic loosening of the soil, since the currant likes to "breathe", and the constant removal of weeds. Although black currant is a plant that is fairly resistant to the phenomenon of all kinds of parasites, it will still be good to spray it 2-3 times a season with a solution of copper sulphate or Bordeaux mixture.
Compared to red currants, black is more moisture-loving, since its roots are not so deep in the ground and, more often than not, do not reach groundwater. It is especially important that black currants receive the necessary amount of moisture during the formation of ovaries (usually the beginning of summer) and during the period of intensive growth of plants, berries. It is important not to forget to water the plant after the harvest, as well as in the dry winter.
Red currant care
The main care for red currants is that in early spring, before the buds bloom, it is necessary to prune the shrubs.
On young, one-two-year-old plants, it is necessary to prune each shoot, leaving only 2-3 developed kidneys on them.The following year, from the strongest zero branches that grow from the roots, you can leave 3-4 pieces, and remove all the others again.
Older plants are subject to sanitary pruning, according to which only 3-4 developed basal shoots should be left, the rest are removed at the very base, which will make it possible to form a full-fledged and fruiting shrub after 4-5 years. An adult plant should consist of 10–15 skeletal branches, which have different ages in approximately equal amounts.
It is important in the first three years not to forget to fertilize the plant, it is during this period that young shoots and roots are formed. Do not forget about the constant removal of weeds, as well as build props that will support heavy branches with berries.
Remember that red currant does not like to "neighbor" with black, but with the gooseberry it feels quite comfortable.
It is also important to note that such a plant does not like acidic and excessively dense soil, as well as close-lying groundwater (depth should be 50-60 cm).