CRINGING. Screening tests
Screening tests are performed in the absence of symptoms, but with a risk of developing a malignant neoplasm. Early detection of cancer increases the effectiveness of treatment, allows the use of a less radical form of therapy and reduces the cost of treatment. The negative consequences of screening are false positive results that require confirmatory examinations (eg, biopsy, endoscopy), giving the patient emotional anxiety, leading to increased morbidity and money, and false negatives that give the patient an erroneous sense of security and tend to ignoring the symptoms of the disease.
Screening studies are necessary for a clearly identified high-risk group (for example, after suffering specific infections, external influences, and certain bad habits). Cancers have an asymptomatic period, and early recognition of the process could change the progression of the disease.Since mortality in oncopathology is high, timely treatment is often effective.
Screening testing must meet the following criteria:
- acceptable cost;
- high accuracy of the method, including accuracy, reliability and individuality;
- adequate sensitivity and specificity;
- high positive predictive value in the population being screened; rectum, cervix to be examined. Laboratory tests include complete blood count, urinalysis, fecal occult blood test, biochemical blood test (including the study of prostate-specific antigen in men). Image imaging studies are limited to the production of chest X-ray, abdominal CT, and mammography. Examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract and irrigoscopy are not routine examination methods. When tumor tissue is available, performing an immunohistochemical study can help in determining the primary lesion. Additional studies that assist in the diagnosis of large cell lymphoma,include immunoperoxidase staining for immunoglobulins, the study of gene rearrangements and electron microscopy, while immunoperoxidase staining for a-fetoprotein or p-chorionic gonadotropin can help in the diagnosis of germ cell disruption at the discretion of the doctor; in the majority of women over 65, the Pap test is performed less frequently and the method of conduction should be well tolerated by patients;
The recommended list of screening studies is continuously developing and is based on the following studies.