How do operations?
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An operation is an intervention in the human body in violation of its integrity. Each disease requires an individual approach, which naturally affects the way the surgery will be performed.
How to do heart surgery: preparation for surgery
Heart surgery (cardiac surgery) is one of the most difficult to perform, a dangerous and responsible type of surgical intervention.
Scheduled operations are usually carried out in the morning. Therefore, the patient is not given either to eat or drink since the evening (for 8-10 hours), and immediately before the operation they do a cleansing enema. It is necessary for the anesthesia to act as it should.
The place where the surgery is done must be sterile. In medical institutions for these purposes they use special rooms - operating rooms, which regularly undergo sterilization treatment with quartz treatment and special antiseptics. In addition, all medical personnel who take part in the operation are washed before the procedure (they even have to rinse their mouths with an antiseptic solution), and also change into special sterile clothes, they wear sterile gloves on their hands.
The patient also put on shoe covers, a cap on his head, and the field of operation is treated with an antiseptic. If necessary, before the operation, the patient is shaved off the hair, if they covered the surgical field. All these manipulations are necessary to avoid infection of a surgical wound by bacteria or other dangerous active microorganisms.
Anesthesia or anesthesia
Anesthesia is a general anesthesia of the body with its immersion in drug sleep.For surgical interventions on the heart, general anesthesia is used, and in some cases, during endovideosurgical operations, spinal surgery is used, in which spinal cord puncture is performed at the level of the waist. Introduce substances that cause anesthesia can be in different ways - intravenously, through the respiratory tract (inhalation anesthesia), intramuscularly or in combination.
Open heart surgery
After a person goes into a medication sleep and stops feeling pain, the operation itself begins. The surgeon opens the skin and soft tissues on the chest with a scalpel. In cardiac surgery, it may also be necessary to “open” the chest.To do this, using special surgical tools cut ribs. Thus, physicians “get” to the operated organ and put special dilators on the wound, which provide better access to the heart. The nursing staff removes blood from the surgical field using suction and burns the cut capillaries and vessels to prevent them from bleeding.
If necessary, the patient is connected to an artificial heart apparatus, which will temporarily pump blood through the body, while the organ being operated on is artificially suspended. Depending on what kind of heart surgery is performed (which damage is eliminated), appropriate manipulations are carried out: it can be the replacement of occluded coronary arteries, the replacement of heart valves for defects, vein bypass or the replacement of a whole organ.
Extreme care is required from the surgeon and the entire staff, as the life of the patient depends on it. It should also be added that during the operation, constant monitoring of blood pressure and some other indicators are performed, which indicate the patient's condition.
Endovideosurgery: stent and angioplasty
Today, more and more often, the operation of the heart is carried out in an open way - with a chest incision, but with access through the femoral artery on the leg, under the control of an X-ray machine and a microscopic video camera. After preparing forsurgery, which is similar for all types of surgical interventions, and the introduction of the patient into a medication sleep, through an incision in the leg opens access to the femoral artery. A catheter and a probe with a video camera at the end are inserted into it, thanks to which the heart is accessed.
In this way, in cardiac surgery, angioplasty is performed with stenimentation of the vessels, which is necessary when blocking the coronary vessels that feed the heart itself with blood. Special stands are installed in constricted vessels - cylindrical implants that prevent arteries from clogging up anymore, which prevents the development of coronary disease.
Completion of operation
After the main part of the operation ends and the heart again independentlyfunctioning, produced stitching of damaged nerves, blood vessels and tissues.The wound is again treated with an antiseptic, the surgical field is closed, and the soft tissues and skin are sutured with special threads. A medical bandage is applied to the external wound. After all these procedures are completed, the patient is removed from anesthesia.
Other types of operations
In addition to abdominal operations described above, there are also operations performed in a less traumatic way:
- Laparoscopy is performed by means of a laparoscope, which is inserted through 1-2-centimeter incisions on the skin. Most often used in gynecology, with gastrectomy and other operations in the abdominal cavity. Read more about this.
- Laser surgery - is carried out using a special laser beam. Usually, eye surgery, removal of skin lesions, etc. are performed in this way.