How do the threads?
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Today, threads are used as the main connecting material in the process of making clothes and shoes. Initially, animal veins and plant stems were used for this purpose. In this article we will find out how to make threads today.
Types of thread
Threads can be classified for various reasons. For example, the All-Russian classifier of products includes such types of threads as:
The described approach implies the difference of threads depending on the raw material composition.
A more complex approach proposes to distinguish threads depending on their purpose.
- Sewing thread. They, in turn, include threads from a variety of materials. For example, at the level of world sewing production, synthetic and blended threads are more often used. In Russian practice, until recently, cotton yarns were preferred, which represent a variety of colors, patterns, etc. Linen sewing threads may not recentlyboast such a wide variety. As a rule, they are used for highly specialized works (for example, sewing shoes, saddlery production, making lace, etc.). Natural silk threads are increasingly being replaced by their chemical counterparts. Complex viscose threads do not have sufficient strength, so they also rarely find use in industrial production. Consequently, Russian manufacturers, following the example of their Western colleagues, are increasingly using synthetic fibers, which are characterized by elasticity, resistance to stress, low shrinkage, and resistance to decay. Due to the low temperature resistance of synthetic threads, polyamide, polyester and reinforced threads appear on the market. Today there are even transparent threads that are able to acquire the color of the material being sewn;
- Knitting thread. In this category, the range is less diverse. According to the raw material composition, they can be: cotton, wool and wool blend, from chemical fibers and threads. Cotton ones are usually used by those who crochet.Cotton knitting threads are subdivided according to the degree of twist into: crochet, iris and garus. Woolen and half-woolen threads can be used for both hand knitting and machine knitting. This kindThe material is also called yarn. The composition of the yarn may be different, depending on the ratio of raw materials used. Synthetic threads can boast high aesthetic properties;
- Embroidery thread. The range of embroidery thread is not as large as in the previous categories. Here are presented only two types of material: floss and embroidery paper. The peculiarity of embroidery threads lies in their special softness, which is achieved due to the low degree of twisting;
- Darning thread. Material of this category can be made of cotton, wool and wool blend raw materials. In general, the range can be called very narrow. It is caused by low demand for darning thread.
Most of the listed types of threads in the production process undergo one or more operations. These include:
At the first stage of production, during the forgings, several initial layers of yarn are added. In the second stage, giving the material strength. For example, in the production of a cotton thread, the raw material must be twisted in two, three, six, nine and twelve additions. The specific amount will depend on the chemical composition of the yarn. The third stage is finishing. This means that the threads give the presentation. If we talk about cotton yarns, then they will have another stage - rewinding and boiling in a weak alkali solution. This is done in order to remove impurities. Next, light threads are bleached with a peroxide solution, and dark and black threads are dyed. After all thiscotton threads are finished and polished.
Modern technologies make it possible for the manufacturer to avoid all these complex steps in creating threads from natural materials. It is enough just to make synthetic threads. To do this, you can simply create an artificial polymer raw materials, which will have all the necessary properties. From this raw material, the finished fibers will then simply be obtained by forcing the molten material through the predetermined openings under high pressure.The fibers are obtained in advance of the designated thickness, strength and length. In short, progress does not stand still. Every day there are new, more advanced technologies, including the production of various types of threads.