How to grow mushrooms at home?
Self-cultivation of mushrooms is becoming increasingly popular. Mushrooms are used to prepare tasty, healthy and hearty dishes for special occasions and for every day: soups, salads, casseroles, pies. One type of mushroom suitable for home cultivation is champignon. Knowing how to grow champignons at home, you can eat this delicacy product throughout the year.
Mushroom cultivation at home
Mushrooms grow in certain climatic conditions (air temperature + 12 + 20 ° С and humidity 50-55%). To do this, you can use any room (balcony, garage, shed, etc.). The process of growing mushrooms involves several stages.
The final result depends on the quality of the preparation of the substrate. It is better to prepare the substrate in the fresh air, since ammonia and carbon dioxide are emitted during the fermentation of the components. If this is not possible, then you should take care of good ventilation of the room.It is necessary to lay a compost pile on a concrete surface with a canopy to avoid contact with the soil and rainwater. If there is no canopy, the stack can be covered with polyethylene, leaving the sides open.
For the preparation of mycelium area of 3 square meters. I will need
- 100 kg of straw. With an insufficient amount of straw, you can add hay, leaves, potato tops, corn stalks or sunflower. The amount of additives should not exceed 1/3;
- 80-100 kg of fresh manure. Horse manure is best suited for this purpose, but in its absence it is possible to use cow or bird;
- 2.5 kg of urea. When using a manure enriched with nitrogen, urea should not be added;
- 2 kg of superphosphate;
- 5 kg of chalk Chalk maintains the desired acidity of the compost;
- 8.5 kg of gypsum or alabaster. The component improves the compost structure, reduces the loss of nitrogen in the process of preparing the substrate.
- Straw soaked for 2-3 days in tanks with water or plentifully watered.
- The compost is stacked in layers. A layer of wet straw is passed over with manure and sprinkled with urea.
- After 5-6 days, the culling is done.The compost is shaken with a fork, additionally moistened and sprinkled with plaster or alabaster.
- The second time the wetting is done in 4-5 days. This time chalk and superphosphate are added to the compost.
- The culling is done 2 more times with a break of 3-4 days. As a result, all components are mixed and the compost is enriched with oxygen.
The readiness of the substrate is indicated by the absence of ammonia odor and uniform dark brown color. High-quality substrate should be wet and not stick to hands. If water oozes out when squeezed, slightly dry it.
The finished substrate is laid in wooden or plastic boxes and tamped. In the compacted form, the height of the soil should be about 23 cm. When the temperature inside the substrate drops to + 24 + 25 ° C, it is possible to lay in it mushroom spores. Pieces of mycelium the size of a chestnut are laid in boxes in a checkerboard pattern to a depth of 8 cm at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other.
After seeding the mycelium, the drawers are closed with a layer of newspapers. At this time, it is important to maintain high humidity in the room. To do this, you can spray the newspaper layer, walls and floor space.In this case, the water should not fall into the substrate. The time of development of mycelium under favorable conditions is about 2 weeks.
At the end of the inoculation process, the gobbling procedure is performed - falling asleep with cover soil to increase yields. For the preparation of topsoil, 3% of chalk is added to the soddy soil. A 3–4 cm thick layer of earth is poured into the drawers and slightly compacted.
Air temperature should be reduced to + 14 + 17 ° С. Moisture in the coating layer must be maintained by spraying it from a spray bottle.