What are the simplest?

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What are the simplest?

The simplest microorganisms are found on the entire surface of the Earth. They live both on mountain tops and at the bottom of the ocean. The discoverer of the simplest is the Netherlands naturalist Anthony van Leeuwenhoek. He made the first description of red blood cells, and also observed the bacteria. Later, in the 18th century, microscopists made a description and sketched dozens of types of protozoa. In this article we will talk about what types of protozoa (single-celled) microorganisms are.

Characteristics of the simplest

Microorganisms that have one cell in their structure are called protozoa. Such a cell can contain one or several nuclei with a double membrane membrane. The main feature of the simplest is that a single cell is able to independently perform all the functions necessary to sustain life. Namely: to provide the processes of respiration, nutrition, reproduction, movement, etc. This is what distinguishes the simplest from multicellular organisms in which a single cell can perform only one or several specific functions.

Reproduction of the simplest

The reproduction of the simplest is possible in two ways: sexually and asexually. During sexual reproduction, the two organisms merge into one (zygote), which continues to reproduce, but in the asexual way. With asexual reproduction, the nucleus is divided into two or more parts. Cytoplasm, in turn, is divided by the number of parts into which the nucleus was divided. As a result, new protozoa are formed, respectively, two or more.

Almost all protozoa can be seen only with a microscope, since their size ranges from 10 to 40 micrometers. In the event that they reach several millimeters (large ciliates), you can see them with your own eyes.

Habitat

The habitat of the simplest is diverse. They can be in the soil, water, human body.

The simplest can have both positive and negative effects on the environment. For example, protozoa can feed on rotting substances in the water, thereby cleaning it. However, penetrating into the human body, parasitic protozoa cause serious diseases.

What are the simplest?

In the world there are more than 25 thousand.species of the simplest organisms. Consider the most common representatives.

It lives exclusively in water, and it does not matter whether it is a lake or a drop of dew. Without moisture, the amoeba dries instantly. It reacts to external stimuli, namely: bright light, mechanical action. It moves with the help of spurs. The movement speed is approximately 0.2 millimeters per minute. It reproduces asexually.

Like amoeba ordinary, lives in water. Its shape can be modified, become wider and shorter. The cell contains green chloroplasts, which give it color. But if you put it in the darkness, the euglena will lose its color and become colorless. The movement is carried out with the help of flagella. It is propagated by euglena by dividing in two (asexual process).

Representatives of this class are moved with the help of prolegs. Due to their presence, the simplest form is variable. Reproduction is possible only asexually. Many sarod are parasites. They live in water, moist soil.

The absence of organoids for movement is their distinguishing feature from representatives of other classes.Reproduction occurs both sexually and asexually. Absolutely all the representatives of sporovikov - parasites. The representative of the class of sporozoans - Plasmodium malaria.

Movement is carried out with the help of cilia. Reproduction occurs sexually and asexually. They live in soils, mosses, fresh waters, seas. A representative class of ciliary infusoria is Paramecia.