What is a genotype?

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What is a genotype?

Studying in the school section of genetics in biology class, students are faced with the concepts of "genotype" and "phenotype." Let us briefly consider the difference between these terms and consider in more detail the concept of "genotype".

What is the genotype and phenotype: the difference

The terms "gene", "genotype" and "phenotype" were introduced by the Danish biologist V. L. Johansen at the beginning of the 20th century.

A genotype is a collection of all genes in an organism that constitute its hereditary basis. A gene is an indivisible unit of a gene. material. In a broad sense, a gene is understood to mean a section of DNA that determines the chance of development of a single trait.

A phenotype is a combination of all the properties and characteristics of an organism, in which its individual development appears; phenotype is the result of the interaction of genes with factors of external and internal environment The phenotype includes the appearance, for example, the color of eyes, hair, skin.

Above, we considered the definition of a genotype in a general sense, but a narrower one can be identified. So, in relation to the experiments of G. I.Mendel - a scientist in the field of genetics - the genotype can be defined as a characteristic of certain pairs of alleles in the genome under study. An allele is one of two or more forms of a particular gene that differ in sequence. The genome is called the genetic material in the chromosomes of a particular organism.

In modern genetics, the genotype is considered as a single system of genetic elements that interact with each other at different levels. The structure, development and vital activity of the organism depend on the genotype.