What is at the bottom of the ocean?
Ocean floor is a stable area of the crust - lithospheric plates, covered with water masses (waters of the oceans). But such a scientific geological definition says little to the average man in the street or to the schoolchild. That is at the bottom of the ocean, only in simpler words, we will tell in this article.
Thirst for knowledge
People have long tried to find out what lurks there in the depths. But if the surface of the seas and oceans was fairly accessible and, as a result, actively explored, then everything that was under water was covered with mystery until very recently. Detailed studies have become possible only with the invention of scuba and bathyscaphe. In this modern form, in order to safely move under water, it appeared only in 1943 thanks to the Cousteau team! Previously, diving suits were used for diving. They say that they were invented by the ancient Chinese (as well as many modern items, gunpowder, for example). But in any case, the study of depths was carried out on a scientific scale only in 19century.
According to modern research, the relief of the ocean floor is as diverse as the above-ground. There are hollows, mountains, plateaus and depressions. Scientists are attracted by the shelves (up to 130 meters) - continental shoals, where biological life literally teems. The basins (for example, the Mariana River — with a depth of more than 10 kilometers), which in fact are places of tectonic faults, can be attributed to the little-studied parts of the relief.
Animals, bottom dwellers
Among the representatives of the fauna there live mollusks, worms, fish, crustaceans. The conditions of their existence are significantly different from the "life on the shelf." At great depths - strong pressure and the complete absence of daylight. Therefore, the animals of the bottom have developed special protective mechanisms-devices for lighting and power. Many of them have a rather strange appearance (for example, drop fish or monkfish). Almost all the animals of the ocean floor are predators, and some can swallow much larger creatures than themselves.
The flora of the bottom is as diverse as on land. Of course, the main life takes place on the shoals and shelves where the rays of the sun penetrate.And at great depths, where there is no light (or a very small amount), plants are practically absent. Most of the biomass is algae (red, green, brown, sargasso and kelp) and phytoplankton.